The huge and increasing volume of dredged materials being moved in and from the bottoms of waterways of the U.S. is probably well known to the reader. Lee and Plumb (1974) distinguish between the 2 forms of dredging: (1) mining the bottom sediments (as in shell dredging), and (2) developing and maintaining navigable waterways. They indicate some 380,000,000 cubic yards are dredged annually in this country; maintenance dredging accounting for about 80,000,000 cy, and new construction for about 300,000,000 cy.* These figures (based on 5 yr. averages) do not include dredging by private companies. Smith (1975) comments: "With federal dredging volume exceeding 350 million cubic yards annually, the environmental importance of effective disposal guidelines is self-evident."
Kraemer, Louise Russert. 1976. An Evaluation of the Effects of Dredging Within the Arkansas River Navigation System, Volume IV - The Effects Upon the Benthic Associations. Arkansas Water Resources Center, Fayetteville, AR. PUB046. 367