Date of Graduation

8-2018

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Cell & Molecular Biology (MS)

Degree Level

Graduate

Department

Biological Sciences

Advisor

Luke Howard

Committee Member

Sun-Ok Lee

Second Committee Member

Jamie Baum

Third Committee Member

Ines Pinto

Keywords

Anti-inflammatory, Cranberries, Phenolics, RAW 264.7, Volatiles

Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic and volatile compounds extracted from cranberries. The Griess Reagent System assay was used to measure the in vitro anti-inflammatory capabilities of cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. This study tested the anti-inflammatory capabilities of the cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts before, as a preventative treatment, and after, as a means of treating pre-existing inflammation, inducing inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All experiments were conducted in the following manner, varying only in whether treated with the extracts before or after LPS: 1 x 103 RAW 264.7 cells were seeded into individual wells of a 96 well plate, given 16 hr to attach, and treated with the phenolic and volatile extracts at 2x, 4x, and 8x dilutions of their respective starting concentrations present in a cranberry for 1 hr either before or after 24 hr of induced inflammation by LPS. Then, nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured to assess the anti-inflammatory capabilities. When treated with the extracts after LPS, the phenolic 635.7 ppm, 317.8 ppm and volatile 1.8 ppm NO levels were significantly lower than the positive control, reduced by 62%, 46%, and 50% respectively. When treated before LPS, the phenolic 635.7 ppm, 317.8 ppm and volatile 1.8 ppm, 0.9 ppm NO levels were significantly lower than the positive control, reduced by 52%, 25%, 47%, and 13% respectively. Upon overall evaluation, the phenolic and volatile extracts’ anti-inflammatory capabilities were very comparable even though the volatiles were at a 353x lower concentration, and an overall stronger preventative effect was observed. Future studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms by which these compounds act to prevent and reduce inflammation and to determine the bioavailability of these compounds.

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