During the years 1977-84, 118 bronzed grackles, Quiscalus quiscula versicolor, Vieillot, of 132 examined were found infected with hematozoa. The eight species of symbionts collected from the infected birds included two microfilarial species (Chandlerella quiscali and Eufilaria hibleri), five apicomplexans (Haemoproteus quiscali, Leucocytozoon fringillinarum, Plasmodium matutinum, P. vaughani, P. sp.) and a flagellate (Trypanosoma ontarioensis). P. matutinum and T. ontarioensis represent new host records and all the protozoans represent new locality records. Comparisons are made of symbiont prevalance and diversity as this relates to seasons of the year, sex and age of the host. Comparisons are also made with previous studies on this subspecies.
Johnson, Arthur A.
"Hematozoa of Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula versicolor, Vieillot) in Central Arkansas,"
Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science: Vol. 44
, Article 21.
Available at: http://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol44/iss1/21