waste heat, thermal pollution, soil heating, water reserves
Mathematical models are developed for the prediction of heat transfer from hot water pipes buried in the soil. Heat transfer in the absence of moisture transfer is described as a function of the difference between the temperature of the pipe and the temperature of the soil surface. The energy balance is used to determine the longitudinal temperature distribution of the water. The method is extended to describe a system of equally spaced, parallel buried pipes. Soil temperature profiles around the pipes are presented. The model is used to calculate the land area that can be heated by an underground piping system carrying cooling water from the condensers of a 1000 MW nuclear-electric plant. A new development of the phenomenological equations for coupled heat and moisture flow, based on the theory of Irreversible Thermodynamics, is presented. Solutions of the equations for boundary conditions representative of buried piping systems designed for simultaneous soil heating and irrigation are presented.
Havens, J. A. and Babcock, R. E.. 1975. Heat and Moisture Conduction in Unsaturated Soils. Arkansas Water Resources Center, Fayetteville, AR. PUB028. 116