Pesticides, Water quality, Poultry waste, Surface runoff, Solute transport, Leaching
The poultry industry in Arkansas is a large, concentrated, growing industry that produces a high volume of fecal waste. Most of this waste is surface applied as pasture fertilizer. Pesticides are commonly used in the poultry industry for fly and litter beetle contro land are often a component of the surface-applied poultry waste. No information exists in the scientific literature regarding the transport of this pesticide component to nearby water supplies.Our research focused on cyromazine, a feed-through larvicide used to control flies in caged-layer hen houses. Tetrachlorvinphos and carbaryl are also used in poultry waste, but these pesticides have a relatively low solubility in water and rapid decomposition rate. Cyromazine, however, is highly soluble and stable in water. Since it may be readily washed from the pasture by heavy rainfall and may persist in surface and soil water, cyromazine appears to be potentially a much greater long-term threat to water quality than either carbaryl or tetrachlorvinphos. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to examine the extent of cyromazine loss as a result of land application of caged layer manure. To quantify cyromazine loss from pasture plots treated with caged layer manure,research was conducted at the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station at Fayetteville. Plots of uniform slope were bordered to isolate surface runoff, fitted with runoff collectors, and established in fescue pasture. Suction lysimeters were placed at the 60 cm depth to sample soil water in the unsaturated zone. Caged layer manure was analyzed for cyromazine concentration and applied to the plots at three different rates. Rainfall was applied by simulator at two intensities. Surface runoff and lysimeter samples were measured and analyzed for cyromazine concentration. A solid phase extraction procedure was used to separate the cyromazine from the water samples and analysis was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that a heavier manure application increased both the runoff and cyromazine concentration. Higher rainfall intensity also increased total cyromazine loss in the runoff, but provided enough runoff volume to decrease the cyromazine concentration. Soil water from the unsaturated zone was monitored for a year following the manure application, but neither cyromazine nor its metabolite, melamine, were detected.
Daniel, T. C. and Edwards, D. R.. 1992. Effect of Land Application of Poultry Waste on Pesticide Loss. Arkansas Water Resources Center, Fayetteville, AR. PUB158. 20