Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biological Engineering

Degree Level



Biological and Agricultural Engineering


Osborn, G Scott

Committee Member/Reader

Seo, Han-Seok

Committee Member/Second Reader

Wang, Dongyi


Craft brewing is a growing market which represents over 12% of beer produced in the United States. Dr. G Scott Osborn, PE invented the Carbo Rock-It™ to improve the carbonation process for craft breweries. The invention allows for shorter carbonation time and uses less CO2, saving companies money and time. Because of the lack of gas losses through bubbling, Osborn theorized that the Carbo Rock-It could also prevent the “stripping of the nose” that can occur in traditional forced carbonation. Existing research supports the mechanism, as beer flavor and aroma volatiles have been detected during the release of CO2 when a beer is served. Additionally, supporting anecdotal evidence from brewers indicates that strong beer aromas fill the room during carbonation. If it can be proven that Carbo Rock-It beer retains more flavors, and it is preferred by consumers, the Carbo Rock-It can be better marketed to craft brewing companies. This study used the triangle test discrimination method to determine if beer-drinkers can perceive a difference between force-carbonated beer and Carbo Rock-It beer. An IPA-type and a lager-type beer were tested on 86 panelists in coordination with the Sensory Science Center at the University of Arkansas. It was found that there was a perceivable difference in the IPA but not in the lager. This result suggests that the Carbo Rock-It does influence the flavor of beer, but the ability for that impact to be perceived depends on the composition of the beer. The IPA has a more hop-forward flavor than the lager. Further experiments to target more specific attributes and preferences are recommended.


Beer, brewing, carbonation, nose, sensory, triangle