In Vitro Mitral Valve Model with Unrestricted Ventricular Access: Using Vacuum to Close the Valve and Enable Static Trans-Mitral Pressure

Document Type


Publication Date



Mitral valve, In vitro, Surgery, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendineae, Mitral annulus


Current in vitro models of the left heart establish the pressure difference required to close the mitral valve by sealing and pressurizing the ventricular side of the valve, limiting important access to the subvalvular apparatus. This paper describes and evaluates a system that establishes physiological pressure differences across the valve using vacuum on the atrial side. The subvalvular apparatus is open to atmospheric pressure and accessible by tools and sensors, establishing a novel technique for experimentation on atrioventricular valves. Porcine mitral valves were excised and closed by vacuum within the atrial chamber. Images were used to document and analyze closure of the leaflets. Papillary muscle force and regurgitant flow rate were measured to be 4.07 N at 120 mmHg and approximately 12.1 ml/s respectively, both of which are within clinically relevant ranges. The relative ease of these measurements demonstrates the usefulness of improved ventricular access at peak pressure/force closure.


This article was published with support from the Open Access Publishing Fund administered through the University of Arkansas Libraries.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.