Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering

Degree Level



Biomedical Engineering


Tian, Ryan

Committee Member/Reader

Muldoon, Timothy

Committee Member/Second Reader

Wolchok, Jeff

Committee Member/Third Reader

Jensen, Hanna

Committee Member/Fourth Reader

Zaharoff, David


The regeneration of bone over a large area cannot occur without a structure for the bone cells to bind and divide. The use of an organic/inorganic composite bone scaffold appears to be a promising alternative to the current clinical standard of bone grafting. Bone grafting is very limited, in that the size and shape of the area are hard to replicate and the use of donor tissue can trigger an immunologic response resulting in rejection of the bone tissue. This study experimented with composite bone scaffolds which can be made to fit the shape of the area in which bone must be regenerated with high mechanical strength and properties that enhance bone growth and mineralization. Graphene oxide was functionalized with bisphosphonate (Bis-GO) to be used in the scaffolds to promote bone mineralization and increase the mechanical strength of the scaffold. Sodium-titanate nanofibers were fabricated to maintain the mechanical strength of the scaffold during biodegradation. Bis-GO and sodium-titanate nanofibers (1.3 mg/mL or 2.6 mg/mL) were integrated into chitosan at different levels, and the mechanical strength of the scaffolds was tested using Instron (Single Column 5944, USA). Compression tests of the scaffold samples showed that composite chitosan/Bis-GO/1.3 mg sodium-titanate nanofibers and chitosan/Bis-GO scaffolds had a significantly higher compressive modulus (p

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