Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering

Degree Level



Biomedical Engineering


Wolchok, Jeffrey

Committee Member/Reader

Muldoon, Timothy

Committee Member/Second Reader

Kim, Michelle


Over one million people each year experience some form of traumatic brain injury. Every individual’s injury is different as impacts can affect different parts of the brain in various ways. This study was conducted to test the impact angles effect on astrocytes by measuring gene expression of TNF- alpha, an inflammation marker, and GFAP, a gene released in response to reactive astrocytes, following impacts from 0, 45, and 90 degrees. Results were recorded from Polymerase Chain Reaction via the delta delta Ct method and compared to the control group for to show under-regulation or up- regulation of the genes of interest. TNF-alpha was up-regulated in the 0 degree test and under-regulated in 45, and 90. GFAP levels were increased for each angle. Two sample t-test were conducted for differences in expression levels and were found to show all significant in TNF-alpha, and significant in GFAP 45 degree impact.