Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering

Degree Level



Biomedical Engineering


Jensen, Hanna

Committee Member/Reader

Quinn, Kyle

Committee Member/Second Reader

Jensen, Morten


Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI is potentially more precise, and avoids many of the pitfalls of conventional Doppler ultrasound, namely in the under- or overestimation of pressure differences in the aorta leading to less than ideal treatment timelines. Our goal was to create a method for quantitatively analyzing vectors produced by the VFI machine and to validate VFI technology by attaching an aortic arch phantom to a customized flow loop. This research will set the foundation for the creation of patient-specific aortic arch phantoms.


vector flow imaging, VFI, pediatric aortic stenosis, aortic stenosis, aortic phantom, phantom