Nanocomposite membranes for water separation and purification: Fabrication, modification, and applications

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Article - Abstract Only

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Water treatment, Separation techniques, Nanoparticle, sMembrane, sMixed matrix, nanocomposite membranes, Thin film nanocomposite membranes


Water pollution is one of the greatest challenges around the world. Nanocomposite membranes are a promising modified version of traditional polymeric membranes for water treatment, with three main characteristics of enhanced permeation, improved rejection and reduced fouling. For novel nanocomposite membranes, there is a strong connection between the membrane fabrication method, the properties of fabricated membranes, and membrane performance. This article, first, reviews the different nanocomposite membrane fabrication and modification techniques for mixed matrix membranes and thin film membranes for both pressure driven and non-pressure driven membranes using different types of nanoparticles, carbon-based materials, and polymers. In addition, the advanced techniques for surface locating nanomaterials on different types of membranes are discussed in detail. The effects of nanoparticle physicochemical properties, type, size, and concentration on membranes intrinsic properties such as pore morphology, porosity, pore size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, membrane surface charge, and roughness are discussed and the performance of nanocomposite membranes in terms of flux permeation, contaminant rejection, and anti-fouling capability are compared. Secondly, the wide range of nanocomposite membrane applications, such as desalination and removal of various contaminants in water treatment processes, are discussed. Extensive background and examples are provided to help the reader understand the fundamental connections between the fabrication methods, membrane functionality, and membrane efficiency for different water treatment processes.

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