Cyber-physical manufacturing cloud: Architecture, virtualization, communication, and testbed
Cloud manufacturing, Cyber-physical systems, Service-oriented architecture, MTConnect
Cyber-physical systems are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes and they are increasingly finding applications in manufacturing. Cloud manufacturing integrates cloud computing and service-oriented technologies with manufacturing processes and provides manufacturing services in manufacturing clouds. A cyber physical system for manufacturing is not a manufacturing cloud if it does not use virtualization technique in cloud computing and service oriented architecture in service computing. On the other hand, a manufacturing cloud is not cyber physical system if it does not have components for direct interactions with machine tools and other physical devices. In this paper, a new paradigm of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Cloud (CPMC) is introduced to bridge gaps among cloud computing, cyber physical systems, and manufacturing. A CPMC allows direct operations and monitoring of machine tools in a manufacturing cloud over the Internet. A scalable and service-oriented layered architecture of CPMC is developed. It allows publication and subscription of manufacturing web services and cross-platform applications in CPMC. A virtualization method of manufacturing resources in CPMC is presented. In addition, communication mechanisms between the layers of the CPMC using communication protocols such as MTConnect, TCP/IP, and REST are discussed. A CPMC testbed is developed and implemented based on the proposed architecture. The testbed is fully operational in two geographically distributed sites. The developed testbed is evaluated using several manufacturing scenarios. Its testing results demonstrate that it can monitor and execute manufacturing operations remotely over the Internet efficiently in a manufacturing cloud.
Xiaoqing F. Liu, Md Rakib Shahriar, S.M. Nahian Al Sunny, Ming C. Leu, Liwen Hu, Cyber-physical manufacturing cloud: Architecture, virtualization, communication, and testbed, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Volume 43, Part 2, 2017, Pages 352-364, ISSN 0278-6125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2017.04.004.