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In-person learning, COVID-19, in-person learning racial gaps, equity concerns


In the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic closed schools throughout the United States, forcing a shift to remote learning that lasted the rest of the academic year. In the fall of 2020, schools reopened using combinations of in-person, hybrid, and remote learning models with great geographic variability in access to in-person learning. A growing body of research shows important racial differences in the use of in-person learning during the 2020-2021 school year, with Black and Hispanic students returning to in-person learning at lower rates than white students (Camp and Zamarro, 2021; Kurmann and Lalé, 2022). This in-person learning gap raises serious equity concerns as emerging research illustrates how remote learning was associated with both larger decreases in academic performance during the pandemic and a widening racial achievement gap (Goldhaber et al., 2022).