Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Kinesiology (PhD)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Gretchen D. Oliver

Committee Member

Jeffrey Bonacci

Second Committee Member

Michelle Gray

Third Committee Member

Brady L. Tripp


Athletic students' ability, Athletic training education, Entry-level graduate athletic training, Scapukar dyskinesis, Scapular kinematics


Scapular dyskinesis refers to abnormal movement patterns of the scapula, which have been associated with injury. Previous investigations have validated the scapular dyskinesis test as a visual assessment method using physicians, physical therapists, and certified athletic trainers. Through educational programs, athletic training students should be taught what scapular dyskinesis is and how to identify it. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to (a) evaluate entry-level graduate athletic training students' ability to identify scapular dyskinesis, (b) assess their reliability, and (c) determine if they were able to correctly identify the muscles involved in rehabilitating an individual with scapular dyskinesis. Follow-up questions were directed at the athletic training students' learning experiences and exposure to scapular dyskinesis. Forty-one graduate athletic training students volunteered to rate 15 videos of participants completing the scapular dyskinesis test. The raters exhibited 80% agreement in identifying scapular dyskinesis. Nineteen of those 41 completed the reliability component, which consisted of seven videos, and revealed moderate reliability (ê =.32 inter-rater; ê =.45 intra-rater). The raters also demonstrated an ability to identify the muscles involved, with 88% correct responses. The follow-up questions revealed that athletic training students perceive greater exposure to scapular dyskinesis and identifying scapular dyskinesis in the classroom setting compared to the clinical setting. Overall, the results indicated that entry-level graduate athletic training students are prepared and able to identify scapular dyskinesis during a scapular dyskinesis test. However, it also indicates a disparity in the clinical education component of the athletic training education program.