Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)

Degree Level



Psychological Science


Jennifer C. Veilleux

Committee Member

Ana J. Bridges

Second Committee Member

Denise R. Beike


Psychology, Health and environmental sciences, Borderline personality disorder, Emotion, Emotion invalidation, Measure design, Psychological assessment, Social experiences


Despite the decades that have passed since invalidation was first theorized to causally influence the development of psychopathology (Linehan, 1993), no measures have been designed and statistically validated to index current emotion invalidation. Research on invalidation has thus grown slowly and often used measures that were designed to assess other constructs (e.g., criticism, abuse) or that retrospectively assess childhood invalidation. This series of five studies describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES), a novel measure of emotion invalidation. Items for the PIES were developed using themes from a qualitative investigation of adults’ experiences of emotion invalidation (Study 1). The item pool then underwent expert review, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (Studies 2-4). Finally, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent, divergent, incremental, and predictive validity were assessed using a short-term longitudinal design. Assessment of the reliability and validity of the 10-item PIES was promising across all indices. Directions for future research using the PIES are discussed.