Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Carleton R. Holt

Committee Member

Janet Penner-Williams

Second Committee Member

Michael T. Miller


Academic growth, Accontability, Instructional leadership, Leadership teams, Principals, School improvement


The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in achievement on the end of course assessment in Geometry and the Grade 11 Literacy exam administered to students in Arkansas during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years. The three main types of scheduling are the traditional schedule with seven or eight periods; the A/B, or the alternating block; and the 4 x 4, or accelerated block. The traditional was utilized by 90% of schools in Arkansas during this time frame. The A/B block and 4 x 4 block were used almost equally, each representing approximately 5% of Arkansas schools. Demographic data were collected for all public high schools in Arkansas; descriptive statistics were calculated and reported for the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 school years. Schools utilizing the A/B model had the highest mean student enrollment; schools implementing 4 x 4 blocks had the lowest mean student population. Block schools had higher percentages of minorities but lower percentages of students eligible for free or reduced meals. The highest mean per pupil expenditure was reported to be in A/B block schools. Block schedule schools and traditional schools with the same or very similar grade configurations were matched as closely as possible by student enrollment, the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced meals, and the percentage of disadvantaged minorities. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze differences in student achievement scores on the Geometry end-of-course and the Grade 11 Literacy assessments. Corresponding scores from the eighth grade benchmark were used as baseline data. No significant differences in the variances were found that could be attributable to scheduling type.