Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Science (PhD)

Degree Level



Poultry Science


Harold Goodwin

Committee Member

Yanbin Li

Second Committee Member

Randall Singer

Third Committee Member

John Marcy


Campylobacter, Indicator Organism, Intervention, Poultry, QMRA, Salmonella


Samples collected at five different large bird poultry processing facilities over a period of 7 months from prescald to post debone locations were enumerated for Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. and the results were used to create Quantitative Microbial Risk Analyses (QMRA) models for parts, ground, and mechanically separated chicken (MSC) products. Sensitivity analyses indicated the points in the process at which reductions would be most advantageous to the endpoint and simulation models were run to test reductions required to meet the current USDA performance standards.

These data were analyzed to determine the reductions from one node (location) to the next and including outside variables (line speed, presence of a post-pick cabinet, pH, and chemical concentration) in the process that may affect the efficacy of these applications in the process. Stepwise regression analyses were used to determine if there was a relationship between the reductions and these variables. If the relationship was significant, then it was further explored with linear estimation to find the most beneficial point at which each of these factors influenced the largest reduction in either Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp.

Data on poultry products during processing was analyzed to identify for Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. for each sample. These samples were then compared to determine if there existed a statistically significant relationship between Enterobacteriaceae and Campylobacter spp. and/or Salmonella spp. at first processing and for several post-debone products (parts, ground, frames, and MSC).

Results from these analyses indicated that the parts product should be able to meet USDA FSIS Agency standards, but that ground and MSC product would require reductions (starting from pre-scald) that may not be reasonably likely to occur at a processing facility. The use of the intervention analysis should aid in determining the best intersect of pH and chemical concentration in removing these pathogens from the first process whole bird carcass rinse (WBCR) samples. Analysis of Enterobacteriaceae as an indicator organism resulted in a justification for the use of Enterobacteriaceae as a predictor organism for first processing WBCR samples.