Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences (MS)

Degree Level



Crop, Soil & Environmental Sciences


L. Tom Barber

Committee Member

Trenton L. Roberts

Second Committee Member

Jason K. Norsworthy

Third Committee Member

Edward E. Gbur, Jr.


PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth, herbicide-resistant cotton, dicamba-resistant cotton, synthetic auxin


Palmer amaranth has been the most limiting weed in cotton production in the state of Arkansas for many years. Recently, resistance of Palmer amaranth to the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting site of action has been discovered at various locations across the cotton-producing region of the state. Cotton varieties have been developed with resistance to synthetic auxin (WSSA Group 4) herbicides. However, research to date has shown PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth to be more difficult to control with herbicides that target alternative sites of action. Herbicide efficacy is also known to vary with weed size, varying spray parameters, and environmental conditions. Preliminary research on control of PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth with preemergence cotton herbicides suggests that herbicide mixtures containing fluometuron are the most consistent option for longevity of control. Preliminary results of postemergence (POST) experiments assessing control of PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth in herbicide-resistant cotton were inconclusive. Limited rainfall impacted both POST and residual weed control. When attempting to salvage a cotton crop, weed size plays an extremely important factor in whether the weeds will be controlled. Two-pass salvage treatments were effective in dicamba-resistant cotton containing mixtures of glufosinate or glyphosate and dicamba and showed little variation in control of large (taller than 15 cm) Palmer amaranth. Interval between applications in a two-pass salvage treatment is influential on control of large weeds, although it does not ultimately affect seedcotton yield. Increasing carrier volume from 70 L ha-1 to 140 L ha-1 was a more important factor in maximizing efficacy of a dicamba application than switching from TTI to AirMix nozzles or increasing the dicamba rate from 560 to 1,120 g ae ha-1. Differences in control between PPO-susceptible and PPO-resistant populations were also observed, as densities of surviving PPO-resistant Palmer amaranth were much higher than PPO-susceptible Palmer amaranth following dicamba application.

Nomenclature: Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.; synthetic auxin; dicamba; fluometuron; 2,4-D; glufosinate