Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Science (PhD)

Degree Level



Poultry Science


Park Waldroup

Committee Member

Susan Watkins

Second Committee Member

Harold L. Goodwin

Third Committee Member

Charles Rosenkrans

Fourth Committee Member

William Huff


Social sciences, Biological sciences, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Broiler chickens, Meat meals, Poultry, Protein supply


As world population, per capita income and urbanization increase, consumption of meat, poultry, milk and eggs will continue to rise to meet the needs of approximately nine billion people in 2050. Global beef, pig and chicken production and per capita consumption increased between 2000 and 2010, with growth in broiler production and consumption outpacing both beef and swine. The increased production and consumption requires readily available feed ingredients in regions where animal production is rapidly developing. Animal-based protein feed ingredients are often difficult to move from country to country due to real or perceived risk of animal disease. Zoosanitary standards can restrict the trade and availability of animal-based protein feed ingredients, which provide a viable source of protein, fat, and essential minerals. This review looks at the impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) on world protein supply, specifically examining animal production and trade of animal-based protein feed ingredients (meat meals) compared to oilseed meals and soybeans, substitute protein feed ingredients. The review illustrates how BSE and subsequent regulations have negatively impacted the trade of animal-based protein feed ingredients, while plant-based protein feed ingredient trade has increased. Between 2000 and 2003, BSE was confirmed in 15 countries, and in 2004, global meat meal exports had declined 44% compared to 2000 levels. Global meat meal exports as a percentage of total protein feed ingredient (meat meal, oilseed meal, soybeans) exports declined from 2.2% in 2000 to 1.4% in 2009. BSE and subsequent regulatory responses also prompted a shift in meat meal sourcing. In 2000, the U.S., the largest exporter of meat meals, represented 20% of total global meat meal exports, but represented approximately 12% in 2009. Meat meal exports of confirmed BSE and/or "controlled BSE risk" countries as classified by the World Organization for Animal Health in 2011, increased 2.8% from 2000 to 2009, while countries without BSE confirmation and/or "negligible BSE risk" countries increased meat meal exports 9.1% during the same period. As animal production increases and domestic supply of meat meals increase, trade restrictions on animal-based feed ingredients could negatively impact animal production in developing countries.