Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education in Recreation and Sport Management (MEd)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Merry Moiseichik

Committee Member

Stephen W. Dittmore

Second Committee Member

Stavros A. Kavouras


Social sciences, Cultural appreciation, Instrument, Leisure, Martial arts, Recreation


The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid Social sciences instrument designed to measure the construct of Cultural Appreciation of Martial Arts. Data were collected from 114 adult martial arts participants. Study participants represented Taekwondo schools located in Arkansas and Filipino martial arts schools located in Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Development of the instrument involved the use of an expert panel, a Q-sort, test-retest reliability test, Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Cronbach's alpha.

The study resulted in a 20-item, 3-factor scale that measures Cultural Knowledge, Cultural Sensitivity, and Cultural Awareness and is named the Cultural Appreciation of Martial Arts Scale. Results indicate the scale is reliable and valid. Reliability for each of the three factors based on Cronbach's alpha were á = .962, .918, and .873 respectively. Initial validation of the instrument was established. However, further validation needs to occur.

Future studies should be conducted with additional populations including other well-known martial arts styles from countries such as Japan and China. The construct of Cultural Appreciation of Martial Arts could also be studied for its potential relationships to other leisure constructs. Study and instrumentation for other activities or endeavors that are associated with a particular culture would be another avenue for further study.