Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Degree Level





Vowell Johnson, Kelly

Committee Member/Reader

Scott, Allison


Due to the fact that formula feeding is often seen as the “easier” option for some women, this literature analysis was conducted to gain an understanding about factors which influence the perception of breastfeeding in low-income populations. This literature review analyzed the factors which influence reduced rates of breastfeeding in lower income populations and the importance of breastfeeding education to this population. A search through CINAHL and PubMed for journal articles dating from 2016 to 2021 was conducted. The search generated 46 studies, 40 from CINAHL and 6 from PubMed. Study eligibility was determined by looking for articles involving low income populations, low rates of breastfeeding, and reasons for these low rates. Of the 10 studies retrieved from the search of the two databases, 4 studies were selected for discussion. These studies include one cross-sectional analysis within a cohort study, one randomized 2-arm parallel group study, one longitudinal cohort study, and one formative research study. In total, these 4 studies included 2,581 participants from which data was collected and took place in four different countries. All of these studies focused on mothers in low-income areas where breastfeeding rates were being observed. Levels of poverty differed based on country and available resources in those areas. When providing education about the breastfeeding benefits for both mother and child to these low-income populations, there are other factors that need to be taken into consideration. Family support, confidence in breastfeeding, and breastfeeding mother’s ability to maintain breastfeeding while working should be assessed. Encouraging this group to exclusively breastfeed can only be effective if they are provided with the option to breastfeed at work, have the time to do so, and have a comfortable, encouraging environment in the workplace.


breastfeeding, lactation, infant feeding, benefits, low-income, low socioeconomic status