Document Type


Publication Date



Mentoring, Coaching, Gradual Increase of Responsibility


The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model for mentoring and coaching includes five moves that can be intentionally used to provide differentiated support for educators: from preservice teacher to expert practitioner. The five moves are 1) Model: Inside or outside the classroom: demonstrations, video clips, etc. coaches may also model expert thinking and problem-solving processes. 2) Recommend: the coach assumes a consulting stance based on research and experience, advocating for particular choices and actions. This move requires credibility and trust. 3) Question: coaches Inquire (to broaden thinking) or probe (to focus thinking) Using an approachable voice, plurals, tentativeness, and invitational stems and holding positive assumptions increases effectiveness. 4) Affirm: coaches assert as valid; they agree, verify or concur. This coaching move may be used when teachers are making sound instructional decisions but are looking to their coaches for confirmation that they are doing the right thing. Affirming heightens efficacy and increases resourcefulness and perseverance. 5) Praise: coaches express commendation or admiration when teachers are no longer looking to the coach for confirmation. These moves, used separately or together, can provide support that is responsive to teachers’ increasing experience and expertise.