Pressurized distribution of domestic wastewater over a sand filter surface achieves better treatment than gravity distribution. The pressurized distribution system caused the filter to better remove organics (BOD₅) and suspended solids. Pressurized distribution also caused the sand filter to achieve more complete nitrification than the filter having gravity distribution. Two slow sand filters 15.2 cm wide, 3.1 m long and 15.2 cm deep were built and loaded with domestic septic tank effluent for 250 days at a rate of 5.1 cm per day. Influent and effluent samples were collected and analyzed for five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅), suspended solids, ammonia- nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen. One filter received septic tank effluent through a 10 cm nominal diameter PVC perforated pipe viaa distribution box dosed by a pump with gravity flow from the distribution box to the pipe. The other filter received water through a 2.5 cm nominal diameter PVC pipe having 0.4 cm diameter holes drilled 76.2 cm on center. The gravity distribution filter system achieved mean effluent values of 36.4 mg// BOD₅ , 19.8 mg// suspended solids, 37.6 mg// ammonia-nitrogen, and 46.6 mg// nitrate-nitrogen. The pressurized distribution system achieved 19.1 mg// BOD₅> 12.2 mg// suspended solids, 25.3 mg// ammonia-nitrogen, and 64.03 mg// nitrate-nitrogen. Influent to the filters averaged 132.1 mg// , 90.3 mg//, 70.3 mg// , and 3.6 mg// BOD₅ , suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, and nitrate- nitrogen, respectively.
Gross, Mark A.; Neal, Stan; Ederington, Belinda; and Muldoon, Robert
"Comparison of Pressurized and Gravity Distribution Systems for Wastewater Treatment,"
Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science: Vol. 44
, Article 16.
Available at: http://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol44/iss1/16