University of Arkansas, Fayetteville


For the first time in the implantable biomaterials field, efficient hydrothermal cation exchange methods were developed suitable for mass-production of implantable material. The cation exchange conditions were performed by various methods of temperature, pressure, and time exposure. To confirm both chemical and physical alteration of the scaffold, XRD shift analysis, EDX atomic composition, and SEM imaging were conducted. The optimal results are to use aqueous solutions of 0.5 M chloride salts in sealed heated containers at 180 ̊C for eight hours. Cation exchange capacities are determined for K+, Na+, Li+, Ca2+, and Sr2+; future studies demanding durable, highly specific composition of a biocompatible material are needed.

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