This study compares influenza mortality in Arkansas during the pandemics of: 1918 (aka Spanish flu), 1957, 1968, and 2009 (H1N1, aka Swine flu). Death certificate and U.S. census data were gathered and analyzed for statistical differences in mortalities based on sex, age, and geographic regions of Arkansas for each pandemic. The geographic regions were defined by the five Public Health Units classified by the Arkansas Department of Health. Regional mortalities were also analyzed across all pandemics to investigate how the different pandemics affected each individual region. Chi-square analyses for each pandemic showed only the 1918 pandemic had statistical differences between male and female mortalities (p0.5). Data showed urban regions sustained higher proportional mortalities than rural regions. Over time, the four pandemics resulted in decreased flu mortalities throughout the state. Regional mortality rates suggest areas for increased public health efforts during future influenza outbreaks in Arkansas, and more efficient distribution of resources may reduce mortality rates of future pandemics.
Gray, A. J.; Nguyen, D.; and Rowley, B. M.
"Retrospective Epidemiologic Analysis of Influenza Pandemics in Arkansas, A,"
Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science: Vol. 66
, Article 15.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol66/iss1/15