In the present study, relationships are developed for determining bond orders (also referred to as bond valences or bond numbers) from published bond lengths for carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbon-oxygen (C-O) bonds. The relationships are based on Pauling’s empirical formula s = exp((Ro-R)/b)), where s is the bond order, R is the corresponding bond length, Ro is the unit valence bond length, and b is a fitting parameter. We use a recently derived relationship for the b parameter in terms of the bonding atoms’ published atomic orbital exponents. The resulting equations were checked against published x-ray diffraction (XRD) data for 176 carbon systems with 540 published C-C bond lengths, and 50 oxygen systems having 72 published C-O bond lengths. The C-C and C-O bond length-valence relationships are shown to have sufficient applicability and accuracy for use in any bonding environment, regardless of physical state or oxidation number.
Harris, C. and Hardcastle, F. D.
"Bond Length - Bond Valence Relationships for Carbon - Carbon and Carbon - Oxygen Bonds,"
Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science: Vol. 69
, Article 11.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol69/iss1/11