Date of Graduation

5-2012

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science

Degree Level

Undergraduate

Department

Biological Sciences

Advisor

Oliver, Gretchen D

Reader

Smith, Kim

Second Reader

Riha, Michael

Third Reader

Brewer, Dennis

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Study Design: Controlled Laboratory Study. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine kinematics and kinetics of the overhand throwing motion while throwing a football pass and a baseball fastball pitch. Background: Though the football throw seems similar to the overhand baseball throw except for the weight of the balls [.42kg football versus .14 kg baseball] the weight has been shown to affect shoulder position and stress throughout the throwing motion [6,11]. In addition, a football quarterback is at risk of shoulder injury as is a baseball pitcher. It is often stated that football quarterbacks are at risk of shoulder injury secondary to both the throwing motion and direct contact. No matter the weight of the ball, there should still be proper kinematics and sequential activation of the kinetic chain. Previous studies have been conducted examining those individuals who played baseball pitcher versus those who were football quarterback [6]. However there has yet to be a study examining those individuals who are dual sport players, baseball pitcher and football quarterback. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine throwing kinematics and sequential activation of the segments of the same individual while throwing both a football pass and a baseball fastball pitch. It was hypothesized that both throws would display sequentiality; however, the baseball throw would have greater segmental speeds and there would be significant differences between throwing kinematics. Methods: Kinematic analysis was performed while 12 male athletes who play dual positions of quarterback and pitcher performed the two overhand throws: football passing and baseball pitching. Data were collected and analyzed for the four major events (foot contact, maximum shoulder external rotation, ball release, and maximum shoulder internal rotation) during the overhand throwing motion. Results: A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences between football and baseball throwing at foot contact in the degree of elbow flexion in the throwing arm and in the velocity of hip rotation among the two throws (p < .05). There was also a significant difference at maximum external rotation in the degree of elbow flexion in the throwing arm (p < .05). Conclusions: This study examined overhand throwing mechanics during both a football pass and a baseball pitch. Results showed that differences existed between football and baseball throwing. Throwing mechanics of individuals who play both positions of quarterback and pitcher are similar to previous data describing the two throws. Although this study did not pinpoint specific benefits from playing both pitcher and quarterback, it appears that there are no consequences to the throwing motions of athletes who play both positions. Further study with perhaps a larger sample size could look to see if injury susceptibility was higher due to more throwing and training over the course of time. Key Words: Baseball pitching, football passing, segmental speeds

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