Date of Graduation

12-2014

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Food Science (MS)

Degree Level

Graduate

Department

Food Science

Advisor

Sun-Ok Lee

Committee Member

Ya-Jane Wang

Second Committee Member

Edward Gbur

Keywords

Blood Glucose, Functional Starch, Grain Sorghum, Insulin, Prediabetes

Abstract

Prediabetes is a sub-health condition in the development to type 2 diabetes, which has been long overlooked. Grain sorghum contains functional starch fractions, which have been widely reported for their potential on blood glucose control and diabetes prevention. A human study with prediabetic men was conducted to investigate the effects of sorghum starch on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. Grain sorghum and wheat (control) muffins containing 50 g total starch were consumed by 15 prediabetic male subjects on two mornings with a 1-week washout period. Plasma samples were collected on -15 (baseline), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after each treatments. The functional starch content (SDS and RS combined) of grain sorghum muffin was higher than control muffin. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses were both significantly reduced on 45 - 120 min intervals (p<0.05). With the grain sorghum muffin treatment, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose was significantly reduced by 35.0%, from 5457.5 ± 645.4 to 3550.0 ± 428.9 mg (~3 h) dL-1 (P<0.05). The mean iAUC of insulin was also significantly lowered by 36.7%, from 7254.6 ± 1228.9 to 4589.3 ± 737.2 mU (~3 h) L-1 (p<0.05). The results implied that grain sorghum is a good candidate in controlling blood glucose and insulin levels in prediabetic population for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

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