Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Sciences

Degree Level



Apparel Merchandising and Product Development


Balasubramanian, Mahendran

Committee Member/Reader

Apple, Laurie

Committee Member/Second Reader

Cheramie, Lance


The primary objective of this study is to identify the differences in apparel fit ratings when represented by a 2D or 3D display in an effort to increase customer satisfaction and reduce the rate of returns, as well as develop an understanding of consumer shopping behavior.

Phase I of data collection involved participants wearing apparel that fit properly and apparel that did not fit properly. 2D images were captured of the front, side, and back, along with 3D body scans for each category of apparel. In phase II of data collection, participants were asked to examine the 2D images and 3D scans collected and evaluate the fit of each while considering the overall fit, bust, waist, and hip regions. Simultaneously, the participants gaze, and fixation was recorded via eye-tracking technology. Participants then completed a survey regarding their online shopping preferences.

When analyzing online shopping behavior, 70% of participants stated they purchased clothing online through online shopping. 80% of these participants stated they had returned an apparel item due to misfit within the last year. When asked what regions participants were primarily concerned with in terms of proper fit, the waist and pant length regions were most common follower by the hip and thigh regions. When analyzing the difference between 2D and 3D fit ratings, the waist region showed the greatest difference. When instructed to evaluate the fit of the given apparel item, participants focused mostly on the bust, underbust, waist, and hip regions. The sleeve length, shoulder, neck, and pant length regions were not considered by the participants.

The current online shopping experience has several limitations and often misrepresents the fit of the apparel items. Customers typically only see 2D images of the apparel worn by a fit model. According to the study, a 3D display of the garment with a 360-degree rotation was highly preferred by the participants when evaluating the apparel fit. This offers a better understanding of the apparel fit upfront which would likely reduce the customers dissatisfaction after purchasing. As a result, there would be a potential decreased in the rate of returns.


apparel fit, 3D body scanning, eye tracking, online shopping