Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Degree Level



Animal Science


Vierck, Kelly

Committee Member/Reader

Yancey, Janeal

Committee Member/Second Reader

Setyabrata, Derico


The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of rosemary extract on the shelf life of ground beef patties under different retail display conditions. Ground beef patties were produced from an 85% lean and 15% fat blend purchased from a local grocery retailer, finely ground through a 0.953 cm plate and separated into 151.2 g patties (n=64). Patties were randomly assigned into a control group (no antioxidants added) or a 0.20% concentration rosemary extract group. Patties were individually packaged using polyvinyl chloride overwrap. Antioxidant and control patties were randomly assigned into one of two lighting intensity groups (3000K v. 3500K). Patties were placed in a simulated retail display for 5 d under continuous light emitting diode (LED) lighting and rotated once a day within a multideck display case. Each day of retail display, a patty was removed from each treatment and immediately vacuum packaged and frozen at -20℃. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis (TBARS) was conducted to evaluate lipid oxidation of the ground beef patties, and color samples were taken each day using the Hunter Lab MiniScan Easy Spectrophotometer.

There was no three-way interaction between display day, antioxidant, and light temperature (P > 0.05) as well as no interaction between display day and light temperature (P > 0.05) and antioxidant and lighting temperature (P > 0.05). There was an interaction observed between antioxidant and day (P < 0.0001). A linear response of lipid oxidation in the control group was noted while the treated antioxidant group remained relatively consistent. Additionally, a main effect of antioxidant type (P < 0.05) and display day (P < 0.05) were observed.

In reference to color spectrometry, L* values presented an interaction between antioxidant and lighting intensity (P = 0.0029). This interaction indicates that lightness can be increased with the use of antioxidants when under higher lighting conditions as opposed to 3000K. A two-way interaction between day and antioxidant (P = 0.0003) was also shown in a* values, indicating that antioxidants create a 1-day separation between the control group on day 4. A similar relationship was found in b* values (P = 0.0008), with day 3 control values measuring at day 4 antioxidant values. Chroma values displayed an interaction between antioxidant and day (P = 0.0008), showing that control values were similar on day 3 as antioxidant levels on day 4, and hue data collected stated similar results (P = 0.0008) There was an interaction observed between antioxidant × day (P < 0.0001). Overall, a higher magnitude of difference was expressed through each progressive day of display, expressing a linear response of lipid oxidation in the control group, while the treated antioxidant group remained relatively consistent.

These interactions conclude that color instability and color degradation can be prevented with the introduction of antioxidants and the reduction of days of retail display. Adding an antioxidant to ground beef does decrease lipid oxidation when compared to ground beef that has not been treated with antioxidants. These data also suggest that antioxidants reduce lipid oxidation regardless of light temperature. As retailers opt for more bright white lights, antioxidants can still be used to successfully extend product shelf life and improve color stability, even in ground product.


antioxidant, ground beef, retail display

Included in

Meat Science Commons