Nitrogen, Manure disposal, Water quality
In Arkansas, approximately 1 Tg of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) manure and litter is produced annually. These waste products are commonly applied to pastures as a soil amendment or fertilizer, but excessive application rates and poor management practices could result in nutrient contamination of ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to: (1) assess the nutrient concentrations in poultry manure and (2) evaluate the nitrogen loss from land-applied poultry litter and manure due to ammonia volatilization and denitrification. Analyses for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), inorganic nitrogen (Ni), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were compared in 12 wet and dry hen manure samples. Drying the manure reduced the TKN from 57 to 40 g N/kg on a dry weight basis in wet and dry manure, respectively. The Ni in the manure was in the ammoniacal form with values of 19 and 2 g N/kg for wet and dry manure, respectively. The P and K levels were not influenced by drying the manure and had values of 24 and 21 g/kg, respectively. The results indicate that the nitrogen content of hen manure can be significantly reduced by drying the sample prior to analysis. In a 10-day laboratory study and an 11-day field study to evaluate ammonia volatilization from surface-applied hen manure, results indicated that 37% of the total nitrogen content of the manure was lost. The results indicated that a substantial amount of nitrogen in surface-applied poultry waste can be lost due to ammonia volatilization. Laboratory studies to evaluate denitrification in a Captina silt loam amended with 9 Mg/ha of poultry litter were conducted. When the soil was aerobically incubated for 168 h and then flooded for 66 h, the nitrate-nitrogen level decreased a net of 17 mg N/kg. The results indicated that, if the ammoniacal nitrogen in the litter is oxidized to nitrate under aerobic conditions and then the soil is flooded and available carbon is present, denitrification can occur rapidly. Results from these studies indicate that soil and environmental conditions playa critical role in determining the potential for nitrate pollution of ground and surface water when poultry manure and litter are surface-applied to pastures.
Wolf, D. C.; Gilmour, J. T.; and Gale, P. M.. 1988. Estimating Potential Ground and Surface Water Pollution from Land Application of Poultry Litter - II. Arkansas Water Resources Center, Fayetteville, AR. PUB137. 39