Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biology

Degree Level



Biological Sciences


Baum, Jamie

Committee Member/Reader

Zhuang, Xuan

Committee Member/Second Reader

Lewis, Jeffrey

Committee Member/Third Reader

Stauss, Kim


With life expectancy continuing to increase and menopause typically occurring at age 51, women now spend a significant portion of their lifespan in the postmenopausal stage, facing increased health risks such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer. Estradiol, which postmenopausal women show deficiency in, has been shown to be associated with appetite- related peptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY). This study aimed to investigate the effects of protein and omega- 3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation on appetite hormones, energy intake (kcal/day), and BMI (kg/m!) in postmenopausal women over a 16-week supplementation period to promote appetite regulation. Thirty-nine postmenopausal women were randomly assigned one of five treatment groups: 1) control (CON, no intervention, n=6); 2) whey protein isolate (PRO, 25g/day, n=7); 3) omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA, 4.3 g/day, n=10); 4) PRO + placebo soybean oil (PRO+PLA, 25 g /d+4.1 g/d, n=7); 5) PRO+O3FA (25 g/d + 4.3 g/d, n=9). We assessed anthropometric outcomes and body composition, and plasma biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 16 weeks via enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Energy intake was measured monthly using 3-day food records. Our findings suggest that 16-week supplementation with protein, O3FA, and protein + soybean oil may decrease appetite, partly through the elevation of plasma GLP-1 concentrations. However, plasma CCK, PYY, and leptin concentration measurements varied and did not consistently correlate with decreased energy intake or changes in body composition.

Available for download on Thursday, May 01, 2025