Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Chemistry


Chemistry & Biochemistry


He, Maggie

Committee Member/Reader

Heyes, Colin

Committee Member/Second Reader

Nakamura, Hiro

Committee Member/Third Reader

Wheeler, Jill


This paper presents the development of a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensor that utilizes the phenomenon of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS). The sensor consists of monolayer graphene on a silicon wafer, functionalized noncovalently with Copper(II) 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuTTPc) via the solution soaking method. A custom sensing chamber was constructed to enable Raman spectra to be collected during NO2 exposure. The response of the sensor was found to be linear between 10 and 100 ppm NO2, indicating that it could be used for both detection and quantification. Furthermore, the sensor was shown to be reusable after exposure to 10 ppm NO2. These results demonstrate the potential of GERS-based NO2 sensors for practical applications in environmental monitoring and safety management.


graphene-enhanced Raman scattering, nitrogen dioxide sensor, Copper(II)tetra-tert-butyl-phthalocyanine, copper phthalocyanine, graphene, Raman spectroscopy

Available for download on Friday, May 03, 2024