Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Kinesiology (PhD)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Dean Gorman

Committee Member

Cathy Lirgg

Second Committee Member

Steve Dittmore

Third Committee Member

Jack Kern


Health and environmental sciences, Education, Golf, Modified equipment, Perceived competance, Snag golf, Sportenjoyment, Youth sport participation


The purpose of the present study was to examine perception differences of competence and enjoyment between learners using modified and traditional equipment, and the potential effects these factors could have on intent for future participation. The participants in this study were 123 children (65 girls, 58 boys) aged 7 to 17 years. Through a convenience sampling method, data was obtained through surveys measuring golf participation and self-perceptions concerning perceived competence, enjoyment and intention to continue participation. To avoid an age confound, the dataset was limited to 2nd through 5th grade children (24 traditional/ 75 modified) for secondary analyses (MANOVA and ANOVA). Analysis revealed no significant differences for enjoyment, perceived competence or intention between children learning with traditional golf equipment and modified golf equipment. Traditional equipment users reported significantly higher experience levels than that of modified users. Enjoyment, perceived competence and intention were regressed on each demographic variable, which indicated traditional equipment was a strong predictor of participants' intention to continue participation. Intention was regressed on the enjoyment and perceived competence variables. For both groups, children using modified and traditional equipment, enjoyment was a strong predictor of intention to continue participation in golf. Even with a significant difference in experience levels, modified equipment users reported similar perceptual experiences as traditional users. The ability to generate positive effects immediately suggests the potential of a more effective way to learn golf. The implication of this research is that further investigations need to occur examining introductory methods to the game.