Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education (PhD)

Degree Level



Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders


Roy C. Farley

Committee Member

Kristin Higgins

Second Committee Member

Paul Blisard

Third Committee Member

Michael Loos


Psychology, Education, Carkhuff human resource development model, Counselor development, Egan's skilled helper model, Fully functioning


The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of two models of basic counseling skill training on the development of fully functioning, and the frequency of basic skill utilization as assessed at the end of the course. Two groups of students were taught using the Carkhuff Human Resource Development model (1971) and Egan’s Skilled Helper model (2002). They were then given the Strathclyde inventory to assess fully functioning early and at the end of the semester, and skill frequency count was conducted on all participants. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were conducted to determine difference between groups in both measures. Additionally, inter-rater reliability was established on the skill frequency count. Analysis demonstrated that change occurred over the course of the semester for both groups in terms of fully functioning, with the group based on Carkhuff’s Human Resource Development showing more change. Analysis also demonstrated a larger frequency of empathic responses with the group taught from the Carkhuff model.