Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education (PhD)

Degree Level



Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders


Kristin K. Higgins

Committee Member

Roy C. Farley

Second Committee Member

John W. Murry, Jr.

Third Committee Member

Linda G. English


Psychology, Education, Arkansas, Counselor/principal relationship, Role of school counselor, School administration, School counselor activities, School counselor perceptions, Social justice


This study is an exploration of the actual and preferred practices of Arkansas K-12 school counselors in low, mid, and high-poverty schools using the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale (Scarborough, 2005), follow-up questionnaires, and interviews. The qualitative component of this study brings to light the contextual factors that prevent school counselors from providing direct and indirect services to students outlined in the ASCA National Model. This research study examines the hidden dynamics of the counselor/principal relationship and how this relationship has a pivotal role in the realization of a fully comprehensive developmental school counseling program. This study contributes to the knowledge and understanding of administrators, school officials, school counselors, counselor educators, and government officials concerning the role and function of the school counselor. The goal of this research is to promote change in policy and organizational infrastructure in order to give school counselors the authority to advocate, lead, and direct their own school counseling programs in order to provide appropriate and timely services for all students