Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Food Science (MS)

Degree Level



Food Science


Jean-François Meullenet

Committee Member

Rubén Morawicki

Second Committee Member

Andy Mauromoustakos


Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Just-about-right scale, Kano modeling, Product optimization


Attribute Kano characteristics are useful in product design to prioritize development efforts. However, attribute Kano characteristics have not been discussed and applied to product optimization when using Just-About-Right (JAR) scales. Product optimizations without identifying attributes Kano characteristics can be misleading. The two objectives in this research were: 1. Determine attribute Kano categories using a modified classic Kano classification methodology. 2. Propose a method to measure attribute performance and identify attribute Kano characteristics to direct product optimization. Two methodologies of attribute Kano classification were investigated. In experiment one, a modified classic Kano methodology was employed to determine attribute Kano categories through an online survey. Orange juice users (n=1072) participated in the survey. Seven orange juice attributes were evaluated. In experiment two, orange juice users (n=100) tested three commercial orange juices. The same attributes used in part one were investigated. Attribute Kano characteristics were investigated using the performance scale and partial least squares regressions. In experiment one, the results show consumers classified orange color as an indifferent attribute, and other attributes, i.e., orange flavor, sweetness, sourness, pulpiness, thickness and freshness, as attractive attributes. The determination on thickness seems weak since consumer responses in the categories of attractive and indifferent are relatively equal, reflecting the potential consumer segmentation. The decision on freshness is firm because there are more than 75% consumer responses in the attractive category. Relatively high consumer responses in the questionable category of sourness and pulpiness indicate low efficiency of this research method. In experiment two, the results show that orange color was an indifferent attribute and the others, i.e., orange flavor, sweetness, sourness, pulpiness, thickness and freshness were identified as one-dimensional attributes. In Minute Maid Original, orange flavor, sweetness, thickness and freshness were not strong enough, and sourness was too strong. For Simple Orange Original, sourness was too strong and orange flavor, pulpiness, thickness and freshness were not enough. No defect was found with Tropicana Pure Premium. By integrating Kano characteristics, modification of these attributes can be prioritized.