Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Food Science (MS)

Degree Level



Food Science


Han-Seok Seo

Committee Member

Jean-Francois Meullenet

Second Committee Member

Robert Harrington

Third Committee Member

Andy Mouramoustakos


Cross-Cultural Difference, Emotional Response, Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale, Odor, Wine


To remain competitive in the wine market, wine companies must strive for a deeper understanding of the factors that influence consumers at an emotional level in order to sustain consumer satisfaction. Evaluating the wine odor-induced emotional response, in addition to hedonic response and descriptive analysis, may provide valuable information into the perspective of the consumer and potentially insight to repeat purchases. The objectives of this research were to measure the emotional responses elicited by odor attributes in wine samples and determine whether these emotional responses vary as function of cultural and experiential backgrounds, as well as sensory characteristics of wine odors. In Study 1 (Chapter 3), 10 trained panelists evaluated odor attributes of the five pre-selected wine samples; four specific odorants, linalool, 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 2,4,6-tricholoroanisole (TCA), and acetaldehyde, were added to the base wine to maximize the odor effect of sensory perception. The five wine samples were found to differ in the odor intensities of sulfur, moldy/musty, honey, and leather attributes. In Study 2 (Chapter 4), French (N = 86) and U.S. (N = 89) participants rated their emotional responses elicited by the odors of five wine samples on the Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale (GEOS). There were significant interactions between country and wine sample for the ratings of "well-being" and "excited" in emotional response. Significant cross-cultural differences were obtained in the emotional responses evoked by the wines for 19 of the 36 terms, which led to the difference in the distribution of wine samples as shown by principal component analysis between two countries. In addition, the emotional responses elicited by wine odors were different as a function of gender and previous reading of wine-related literature. Furthermore, the odor of wine sample including TCA was rated at the least pleasant in both countries. This study shows that emotional responses and hedonic responses, as well as sensory attributes can be modulated as a function of the odor of wine samples and consumer characteristics such as gender and culture. A better understanding of the emotional effects of odors found in wine, and how these effects vary among consumers, will allow the wine industry to develop products with specific emotional impacts on users of different consumer groups.