Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Higher Education (EdD)

Degree Level



Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders


James Hammons

Committee Member

Suzanne McCray

Second Committee Member

Donald Johnson


Equine Teaching, SOLO, Student Oriented Learning Outline


This study determined if the use of the student oriented learning outline (SOLO) in a University of Arkansas equine production classroom had a positive influence in three areas: mastery of material taught, retention of material taught and voluntary positive student behaviors related to the use of course material. Thirty-one students who were enrolled in 2012 were in the non-SOLO group (control), and 25 students who were enrolled in 2013 were the SOLO group (treatment). Three separate units were taught to the treatment and control groups with only one difference: the treatment group was given a SOLO one week in advance of three equine production labs.

Lab exam scores on three units taught with and without SOLOs were compared utilizing Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). ANCOVA was used to statistically control for any effects due to differences in high school grade point averages of participants. On two unit exams, the SOLO group significantly outperformed the non-SOLO group. On the third unit exam, the difference between the SOLO group and non-SOLO group was not statistically significant.

When students anonymously responded to statements concerning SOLOs, their perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, underscoring the fact that the students found the SOLOs beneficial in preparing for exams and a useful guide for what should be learned.

Positive affective indicators of voluntary student behavior were exhibited in each of the three SOLO labs; this demonstrated that students not only gained knowledge and skill but also continued to voluntarily use the knowledge or demonstrate the skill, because they believed it to be worthwhile.