Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Health Science (PhD)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Jean Henry

Committee Member

Kristen Jozkowski

Second Committee Member

Ronna Turner

Third Committee Member

Michelle Gray


Adult Women, Body Image, Quality of Life


Physical, mental, and emotional changes can occur throughout the aging process, making it important to treat different age groups as separate populations when researching body image. Yet, very few instruments have been validated for middle-aged and older adults. An online survey was used to perform a validation of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) and examine demographic relationships, with a sample of 947 women, ages 40-79, from across the United States. A principal component analysis (PCA) and convergent validity supported the use of the BIQLI for women ages 40 to 79. A one-factor model was validated for comparing BIQLI scores across decades. A two-factor model provided useful information about potential subscales within the BIQLI for women of certain decades. Two- and three-factor models had different patterns for each decade, making the one-factor model the only solution for comparing across age groups. The strongest demographic relationship existed between total BIQLI score and body mass index, though the relationship weakened as age increased. Income level and relationship status had small associations with BIQLI score only for the women in their 60s. Results indicate that the 60s may be a time of transition for body image and warrants continued research. Race also played a distinct role with Caucasians having lower scores than the sample with all races combined. Combining races may skew findings and lead to incorrect assumptions, especially when Caucasians are included in a sample.