Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education (PhD)

Degree Level



Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders


Brent Williams

Committee Member

Ronna Turner

Second Committee Member

Keith Vire

Third Committee Member

Charles Palmer

Fourth Committee Member

Kristin Higgins


Copeing, Spirituality, Visual impairment, Women


The purpose of this study was to examine coping responses, specifically by women, and the relationship between those coping responses and a woman’s self-reported spirituality. The sample was comprised of women (n = 175) from the United States and 10 foreign countries. The results of a correlational analysis showed a strong positive relationship (r= 0.46, p<0.0001) between scores on the Spirituality Assessment Scale (SAS) and the Brief Cope (BC). There were also statistically significant correlations among subscales of the SAS and BC subscales. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the impact that select demographic variables might have on spirituality and coping responses. The results of the MANOVA showed no effect and were not statistically significant at alpha 0.1.