Date of Graduation
Master of Science in Kinesiology (MS)
Health, Human Performance and Recreation
Second Committee Member
Anxiety, Concussion, Ocular Motor, Vestibular
Anxiety has been associated with vestibular and ocular motor impairment in the general population. However, there is limited research regarding the connection between the vestibular and ocular motor systems and anxiety following sport-related concussion (SRC). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare state anxiety between concussed adolescent male and female athletes with and without vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective, repeated measures SUBJECTS: Thirty adolescent athletes between the ages of 15-18 years, diagnosed with a SRC completed the STAI-State at initial and medical clearance clinical visit. These adolescent athletes were categorized into vestibular and ocular motor provocation (PROV) or no vestibular and ocular motor provocation (NO PROV) based on VOMS change scores at initial clinical visit. MEASUREMENTS: A computerized neurocognitive test (ImPACT); VOMS, STAI, PCSS. PROCEDURES: Participants completed at least 2 clinical visits (initial and medical clearance) to include ImPACT, VOMS, PCSS, and the STAI-State at initial clinical visit and STAI-State and STAI-Trait at medical clearance clinical visit. RESULTS: There was a significant between-subjects effect for provocation groups (F1,1 = 8.38, p = .007, η2 = .23) on state anxiety. State anxiety scores were higher between PROV (M=43.73, SD=14.64) and NO PROV (M=31.68, SD=9.15) groups. In addition, there was a significant within-subjects main effect for time (F1,1 = 6.948, p = .01, η2 = .20) for state anxiety. State anxiety at initial clinical visit (M=36.10, SD=12.67) was higher when compared to state anxiety at medical clearance clinical visit (M=29.73, SD=9.84). The interaction between provocation groups and time was not significant (Wilks’ λ = .94, p = .20, η2 = .06). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that state anxiety is elevated acutely following SRC and may present comorbidly with vestibular and ocular motor impairments. It is imperative for clinicians to assess these symptoms and impairments acutely following SRC in order to begin quick and effective treatment. Effective treatment options help alleviate symptoms, such as anxiety and vestibular and ocular motor impairments, and provide quicker recovery times.
McElroy, M. K. (2018). Examining the Relationship Between State Anxiety and Vestibular and Ocular Motor Impairments and Symptoms in High School Athletes with Concussion. Graduate Theses and Dissertations Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/2752