Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Food Science (MS)

Degree Level



Food Science


Sun-Ok Lee

Committee Member

Luke Howard

Second Committee Member

Jungae Lee-Bartlett


Anti-Inflammation, Berry Phenolics, Berry Volatiles


Inflammation is one of defense reactions of our body tissues against harmful stimuli such as infection and tissue injury. However, it has been reported that chronic inflammation can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This transition from acute to chronic inflammation state is usually induced by pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which accelerate the development of other chronic diseases. Accordingly, targeting these pro-inflammatory factors is one of the important roles for anti-inflammatory agents. For last two decades, researches about anti-inflammatory effect of bioactive compounds from fruits and vegetables have increased. Among fruits and vegetables, berries are one of the most consumed fruits in our diet and have plenty of nutritive and non-nutritive components such as vitamins, minerals, and especially polyphenols and volatiles. Berry phenolic compounds are well known for having anti-inflammatory effect as well as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. However, berry volatiles, which are responsible for fruit flavor, have very limited information of health beneficial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of berry volatiles using LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell model, by studying the modulation of production of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α and comparing results to berry phenolics. We found that volatiles from six berries (blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry) have comparable anti-inflammatory activity to berry phenolics by reducing the production of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α in vitro. Results from this study suggest that berry volatiles may be potential effective treatments to prevent inflammation-related diseases.