Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education (PhD)

Degree Level



Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders


Rebecca Newgent

Committee Member

Ronna Turner

Second Committee Member

Ed Mink

Third Committee Member

Roy Farley


Health and environmental sciences, coping, middle school, psychometrics, stress management, self-efficacy inventory


The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, pilot, and establish the initial psychometrics of the Stress Management Self-Efficacy Inventory (SMSEI). Once developed and positive psychometrics established, middle school counselors and other mental health professionals can use the SMSEI to identify children who lack self-efficacy in the area of stress management. Once adolescents are identified as having low stress management self-efficacy, this measure can also aid professionals in creating programs and interventions. The SMSEI measures how well adolescents believe they can manage their stress as well as measures specific areas or management techniques that a child believes they are most incapable of handling or implementing. Participants were recruited voluntarily from three area Middle Schools. One hundred seventy six adolescents (male = 49%, female = 51%) aged 11 to 14 agreed to participate in the study. Sixty one percent of the participants were in the sixth grade and 39% in the seventh grade. Caucasians constituted 80% of the sample with the remaining 20% as non-Caucasian. Participants were asked to complete the SMSEI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC; Speilberger, Edwards, Lushene, Montuori, & Platzek, 1973), The Schoolager’s Coping Strategies Inventory (SCSI; Ryan-Wenger, 1990), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1989), the Parent Child Stress Report (PCSR), and a demographic sheet. Two weeks later, participants were asked to complete a second SMSEI. Results of testing the initial psychometrics of the SMSEI were mixed. While internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content and criterion validity were promising, results related to the construct validity were less hopeful. After discussing and exploring possible reasons for the poor construct validity results, the researcher developed a revised SMSEI version, which resulted in stronger support for construct validity. While the revised version of the SMSEI had promising reliability and validity results, further research and development is required. Overall results, however, support the future use of the SMSEI as a tool for identifying students with areas of concern related to poor stress management self-efficacy.