Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE)

Degree Level



Civil Engineering


Micah Hale

Committee Member

Cameron Murray

Second Committee Member

Gary Prinz


Cement, Concrete, Cracking, Engineering


Of all the traditional concrete materials, portland cement has the greatest impact on mixture cost and the environment. Cement is in many ways the glue holding concrete together (Weiss, 1999), and as such, it plays a major role in fresh and hardened concrete properties. Without the proper range of cement in the mixture, low strength development or excessive shrinkage may occur leading to premature deterioration. The Arkansas Department of Transportation (ARDOT) recognizes two types of concrete for use in bridge construction, Class S and Class S(AE). This paper focuses on the findings from testing of Class S(AE) concrete, short for Class S air entrained, as it is the primary concrete used in the construction of bridge decks within the state. The goal of this project is to investigate the possibility of reducing cement content in Class S(AE) mix designs while maintaining required ARDOT specifications for fresh and hardened concrete. The testing program included varying cementitious material content, Class C fly ash percentage, and water to cementitious material ratio (w/cm).