Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Kinesiology (PhD)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Dean Gorman

Committee Member

George Denny

Second Committee Member

Jack Kern

Third Committee Member

Cathy Lirgg

Fourth Committee Member

Sharon B. Hunt


Health and environmental sciences, Education, Coaching, Feedback, Setter, Timeout, Volleyball, Youth


The purpose of the study was to understand the relationship of coach feedback during time-outs to the performance of 16-18 year old volleyball players in competitive match play situations. The systematic observation of coach feedback during 89 time-outs was recorded using the Coach Time-Out Observation Instrument (CTOOI). Out of the 879 feedback statements that were made during the 89 time-outs, the CTOOI categorized coach feedback for technical feedback (with an internal or an external focus), tactical feedback (referring to our team or the opponent), and psychological feedback (as either encouraging or discouraging remarks). Data from the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) were collected for the "quarterback of the volleyball team:" the setter. Data were collected to evaluate setter performance for the four rallies before the time-out and the four rallies immediately after the time-out. The GPAI measured setter positioning, decision making, and skill execution.

The multiple regression analysis did not show any feedback strategy to be significant for the entire group of setters in terms of performance improvement. However, as the literature on coach feedback had suggested, when the setters were divided into groups of higher and lower skilled setters, significance was found for certain coach feedback types in each group of setters. For higher skilled setters, significant improvement in setter performance (p= .03) came from feedback that was tactically oriented towards the opponent in combination with technical internal feedback. For lower skilled setters, setter decision-making was improved significantly (p= .05) by time-out feedback characterized by psychologically encouraging over and above discouraging remarks that were made during the time-out.