Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum and Instruction (PhD)

Degree Level



Curriculum and Instruction


Tom Smith

Committee Member

Janet Penner-Williams

Second Committee Member

Linda Eilers


emotional and behavioral disorder, behavior, effort-ascribed feedback, mathematics, multi-component, self-efficacy, self-monitoring


Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) experience more negative student outcomes compared to other special education disability categories, specifically, higher dropout rates, less access to higher education and incarceration. Mathematically, 73% of students with EBD achieve below the 50th percentile on standardized tests (Wagner, Kutash, Duchnowski, Epstein, & Sumi, 2005). This study focused on the exploration of a multi-component mathematics and behavior intervention targeting student self-efficacy for productive learning behaviors in the general education mathematics classroom setting for elementary students with EBD. Participants for this study were students from two 4th grade classrooms, who have been identified with co-occurring EBD and low mathematics achievement. Each student participated in goal setting, four days weekly self-monitoring and behavior rating. Teachers used effort-ascribed feedback and met one-on-one with students for Self-Efficacy Coaching Session for 4 weeks (16 sessions). Students were assessed prior to the treatment and post treatment, measuring on-task behavior in mathematics and mathematical achievement. A concurrent single-subject multiple baseline research design was implemented to explore student outcomes related to mathematics achievement and on-task behavior during mathematics instruction. The results indicate that Self-Efficacy Coaching has potential as a promising practice to improve students’ on-task behavior and increase mathematics achievement for elementary students with EBD. Recommendation for further research include implementation with an experimental design to include a control group to determine if a causal relationship between Self-Efficacy Coaching and behavior/academic gains.