Date of Graduation

5-2020

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Science (PhD)

Degree Level

Graduate

Department

Poultry Science

Advisor

Narayan C. Rath

Committee Member

Xiaolun Sun

Second Committee Member

Abhinav Upadhyay

Third Committee Member

Sami Dridi

Fourth Committee Member

Annie Donoghue

Keywords

Chicken macrophages, Inflammatory, Primary chicken enterocytes, Proteomic analysis, Salmonella Enteritidis, Sodium butyrate

Abstract

Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major poultry associated food borne pathogen that causes enteric illnesses in humans. Despite using various pre-harvest and post-harvest intervention strategies to reduce Salmonellosis, SE infection is still an extensive problem in the poultry industry with increased incidences since SE has developed multiple strategies to adapt in the chicken intestinal tract particularly in the ceca. Therefore, reducing SE in the intestine of chickens would reduce contamination of poultry derived foods and minimize the risk of human infection. Short chain fatty acids such as butyrate are microbial metabolites known to modulate inflammatory response. In this dissertation, the effect of sodium butyrate on the colonization of SE in primary chicken enterocytes and chicken macrophages was investigated. In addition, the effect of sodium butyrate on the proteome of primary chicken enterocytes and chicken macrophages cells infected with SE was investigated. A primary chicken enterocytes culture model was developed and the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs) of sodium butyrate on SE adhesion and invasion of primary chicken enterocytes and chicken macrophages was determined. The effect of sodium butyrate on the expression of SE virulence genes and selected inflammatory genes in chicken macrophages challenged with SE was studied using RT-qPCR. Also, the tryptic peptides of sodium butyrate treated primary chicken enterocytes and chicken macrophages in the presence or absence of SE infection were analyzed using tandem-mass spectrometry and the differentially regulated proteins were evaluated. The two SICs of sodium butyrate against SE were 22 mM and 45 mM respectively. The two SICs of sodium butyrate reduced SE adhesion by ∼1.7 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL and ∼1.8 Log CFU/mL and invasion by ∼2 Log CFU/mL and ∼2.93 Log CFU/mL respectively in primary chicken enterocytes (P

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