Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry (PhD)

Degree Level



Chemistry & Biochemistry


Matthias C. McIntosh

Committee Member

Stefan M. Kilyanek

Second Committee Member

Jingyi Chen

Third Committee Member

Nan Zheng


Breslow, Organic, Radicals, Thiazole rings


Electron rich enamines are capable of C-N bond homolysis and subsequent recombination and/or disproportionation. It is unclear what causes these radicals to undergo recombination or disproportionation. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations do not provide a transition state for the recombination and disproportionation processes and therefore they cannot be used to predict the favorable reaction. Breslow intermediates formed by deprotonation of thiazolium salts and reaction with aromatic aldehydes are examples of electron rich enamines. These breslow intermediates can undergo C-N bond homolysis to form a radical pair the either recombine or disproportionate. Upon investigation of the factors influencing recombination and disproportionation, it was determined that when fluorene is employed as the nitrogen substituent on thiazole, the reaction favors disproportionation at low and high temperatures.

The biological compound “vitachrome” was synthesized by reacting thiamine HCl with triethylamine in DMF. We hypothesize vitachrome forms through a radical mechanism which is supported by the observation of pyrimidine monomer and dimer in the reaction mixture. An asymmetric dimer can also be formed using this method when diphenylmethylthiazolium bromide salt and diphenylmethylbenzothiazolium bromide salt are used as starting materials.