Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Health, Sport and Exercise Science (PhD)

Degree Level



Health, Human Performance and Recreation


Cathy Lirgg

Committee Member

Dean Gorman

Second Committee Member

Paul Calleja

Third Committee Member

Douglas James Adams


Burnout, Division II, Head Coaches, National Collegiate Athletic Association, Stress


The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify factors that create stress among head coaches at the National Association Athletic Association Division II level. Data was collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Coaching Issues Survey (CIS), a tool used to measure specific factors that may create stress among coaches. The factors of the CIS include four subscales: Athlete-Concerns, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Win-Loss. Participants (N=416) consisted of head coaches representing the following sports: baseball, men’s basketball, women’s basketball, men’s golf, women’s golf, men’s and women’s golf, softball, women’s tennis, and men’s and women’s tennis. The independent variables for this study were type of sport, years of coaching experience, age, gender, additional duties, and scholarship funding. The dependent variable was the score on the Coaching Issues Survey. Results showed that Program-Success was significantly higher than all other subscale mean scores for all participants. Head coaches with additional duties scored significantly higher than head coaches with no additional duties on total stress mean score, Time-Role, and Program-Success mean scores. Program-Success mean score was significantly higher for coaches without full scholarship funding compared to coaches with full scholarship funding. Head coaches aged 60 and over scored significantly lower in total stress mean score than all other age groups. Total stress mean score for head coaches by years of experience yielded no statistically significant difference. Lastly, female head coaches’ scores were significantly higher on total stress mean score and all subscale mean scores except Program-Success; however, Program-Success showed the highest stress score for all participants. Data suggest that Program-Success is a stressful issue for head coaches of collegiate sports at the NCAA Division II level. Program-Success relates to coaching issues such as inadequate travel budgets for contests with highly competitive teams, being able to recruit key personnel to improve success, and budget limitations that hamper recruiting. It is recommended to repeat the study by sending the survey to head coaches at the beginning of the school year and the conclusion of their sport season. This approach might highlight the assessment of all coaching issues throughout the school year including pre-season, recruiting, and post-season.